An ADJECTIVE is a Qualifying Word that qualifies a NOUN or a PRONOUN.
एडजेक्टिव वे शब्द है जो संज्ञा या सर्वनाम की विशेषता बताते हैं । ये किसी वाक्य में संज्ञा के पहले या बाद में आ सकते हैं ।
- This is a good book.
This book is good.
- That is a sweet mango
That mango is sweet
- I have an interesting book
The book is interesting
लेकिन ADJECTIVE का प्रयोग सर्वनाम के बाद ही होगा अगर उस वाक्य में NOUN न हो तो।
- He is intelligent.
- They are happy
- You are lazy.
- They are crazy.
- It’s very dangerous.
- That is right.
- We are ready.
- He is tired.
This is one of the eight Parts of Speech.
1. P – Proper Adjective
2. I – Interrogative Adjective
3. N – Adjective of Number
4. Q – Adjective of Quantity
5. D – Demonstrative Adjective
6. P – Possessive Adjective
7. D – Distributive Adjective
8. Q – Adjective of Quality
An Adjective that is made of a Proper Noun is called Proper Adjective.
Ex.:- Noun – Adjective
- India – Indian
- America – American
- Russia – Russian
Facts – It always gets beginning with capital letter. Generally it comes before the Noun for which it is used. Proper Adjective + Noun must get Article before itself.
- Indian policy is not good. – ( x )
- Indian policy is not good. – (x)
- The Indian policy is not good. – (✔)
Indian, Russian, American, …etc. का use Common Noun मे भी होता है, अतः इसके तहत ये Singular अथवा Plural हो सकते ह
- I am an Russian. – (✔)
- We are Russians. – (✔)
A word used with a Noun that arises Question for the Noun is called Interrogative Adjective.
Ex – What, Which, Whose …etc.
Facts – It comes before the Noun for which it is used. It gets Question Mark (?) to finish its Sentence.
Ex.:- Which pen is running well.
Note – who तथा whom कभी भी Adjective का रूप नहीं लेते, ये Pronoun रूप मे आते है, Adjective के रूप में इनके बदले ‘Which’ आते है। Ex-
- Who boy can solve this Question? –(x)
- Which boy can solve this Question? – (✔)
Adjective of Number
If a Number (Digit) comes to qualify a Noun is called Adjective of Number.
Ex.:- One wicket, Two wicket, the third Umpire …etc.
Adjective of Number that is also a part of Adjective can be divided into two parts.
- Ordinal Adjective of Number
- Co-ordinal Adjective of Number
Ordinal Adjective of Number –
- a. It shows the order of a Noun
- b. It comes before the Noun for which it is used.
- c. It gets a Singular Noun & Singular Verb.
- d. Ordinal Adjective of Number + Noun gets Article ‘The’ before itself.
Ex – The third umpire is very laborious.
Note – First one, Second one, Third one, Fourth one .. etc का प्रयोग भी Ordinal Adjective of Number के रूप में होता ह, जिसका Verb Singular होता
Ex.:- The third one was very easy.
Co-ordinal Adjective of Number –
- a. It shows the number of a Noun.
- b. It gets Noun & Verb Singular with one and Plural with other number.
- c. Generally Article does not come before it.
Ex – One student is absent today. –(✔)
Ten students are absent today. –(✔)
Special Note – If Ordinal & Co-ordinal both kinds of Adjective of Number come together Ordinal is written first and Co-ordinal is later.
Note – ध्यान रहे की इस अवस्था में आने वाला Noun तथा Verb दोनों Plural रहता है Ex
- The five first wicket has played well in this match. – (x )
- The first five wickets have played well in this match. – (✔)
Adjective of Quantity –
A word used with a Noun that shows the Quantity of the Noun is called Adjective of Quantity.
ये किसी वस्तु की मात्रा को दर्शाते है ।
Note – ये Adjectives वस्तु की निश्चित मात्रा को नही दर्शाते है ।
Adjectives – much,enough, all, no , any, great, half, sufficient, whole, etc.
1. Note – It comes before a Singular Uncountable Noun. Ex –
- Much rice is remaining in the kitchen.
All, Some, A lot of, Most, Lots of, A great deal of, A good deal of …etc are Uncountable Noun comes in Adjective of Quantity. Ex-
- Most rice is boiled in the kitchen
these Adjectives point out which person or thing is meant to
ये Adjectives जिस व्यक्ति या वस्तु की बात की जाए, उसकी ओर इंगित करते है
Adjectives – this, that, these, those
what शब्द को जब Exclamatory Adjective के रूप मे use किया जाता है तो यह Exclamatory Adjectives कहलाता है ।
These Adjectives point out possession. ये निश्चित व्यक्ति या वस्तु के Relation को बताते है । ??
Adjectives – my, our , your, his, her, its, their. ?
The use of Adjectives Adjectives को दो तरह से use किया जा सकता है :-
- Attributive Use- जब adjective किसी noun के साथ आकर noun को directly qualify करता है । ?
- Predicative Use – जब Adjective predicate का अंश बनकर noun को qualify करता है । इस use मे adjective mostly verb के बाद आता है । ?
The ADJECTIVES are mostly used before the nouns and this makes a very easy phrase structure.
Adjective + Noun
Examples of such structure
- Good man
- Easy question
- Nice day
- Regular student
- Pleasant surprise
- Familiar person
- First person
- Last night
- High mountain
- Little bird
- Sweet song
- Black coat
- Red light
- Shining star
- Favorite colour
- Large amount
- High quality
- Rare occasion
- Unforgettable incident
All those suffixes that make adjective words by adding to any word are called the ADJECTIVE SUFFIX.
1. al (chemical, bacterial, functional, national)
2. ish (childish, bookish, reddish)
3. ful (beautiful, successful, careful)
4. less (careless, harmless, restless)
5. ous (dangerous, prosperous)
6. like (childlike )
7. wise (namewise, heightwise, areawise)
8. est (longest, greatest, fastest, largest)
9. ist (racist, Nationalist, Maoist )
10. y (goldy,sunny, muddy, rainy, cloudy)
11. ly (wordly, kingly)
15. ing (surprising, exciting)
16. ic (metallic, systematic )
17. ed (divided, authorised, nominated, surprised)
Note – All the words in the brackets are adjectives.
Question – 15
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