Direct and Indirect Speech Part 2
Rules for changing Direct Speech into Indirect Speech –
The basic rules…
1. Comma and inverted commas will be removed.
2.The conjunction “that” will not be used in Indirect Speech (in question sentence).
The conjunction “that” is used in Indirect speech of all positive sentences only.
3. In indirect speech, the question sentence will be expressed in assertive (positive) form instead of interrogative form.
4. Question mark (?) will not be used in indirect speech of interrogative sentence.
5. The verb such as ‘say’ or ‘tell’ (e.g. he said or she said) in direct speech is replaced with verbs ‘ask’ or ‘inquire’ (e.g. he asked, she inquired) in indirect speech.
उपरोक्त नियम प्रश्नवाचक वाक्यों के लिए direct speech से indirect speech में बदलने के सामान्य नियम हैं । इनके अतिरिक्त कुछ विशिष्ट नियम भी है जो प्रश्नवाचक वाक्यों के प्रकार पर आधारित हैं। जैसे
There are two types of question-sentences:
1. Question which can be answered with YES or NO
2. Question which cannot be answered only with YES or NO, but requires a detailed answer. Such questions usually start with “what, why, how, when e.t.c”
Do you like a mango? (Such a question can be answered by saying only YES or No)
What are you doing? (Such a question cannot be answered by Yes or No but it requires a bit explanation i.e. I am listening to music.)
1. Simple present का simple past हो जाता है –
Direct.. He said, “I am unwell.”
Indirect.. He said that he was unwell.
2. Present continuous का Past continuous हो जाता है –
Direct – He said, “My master is writing letter.”
Indirect – He said that his master was writing letter.
3. Present perfect का Past perfect हो जाता है –
Direct – He said,” I have passed the examination. “
Indirect – He said that he had passed the examination.
4. Simple past का Past perfect हो जाता है –
Direct – He said,” the horse died in the night. “
Indirect – He said that the horse had died in the night.
5. Universal truth हो तो Tense नहीं बदलते –
The teacher said.” The earth goes round the sun. “
The teacher said the earth goes round the sun.
6. Pronoun बदल देते हैं ताकि speaker और listener का संबंध बता सकें –
He said to me,” I don’t believe you. “
He said he didn’t believe me.
प्रश्नवाचक वाक्यों के इनडायरेक्ट स्पीच में परिवर्तन के कुछ विशिष्ट नियम इस प्रकार से हैं
(1). जिन प्रश्नवाचक वाक्यों के उत्तर “YES or NO” में दिए जा सकते हैं उनको indirect speech में बदलने पर “if” or “whether” शब्दों का प्रयोग किया जाता है। Examples:
David said to me, “Do you likecoffee?”
David asked me if I liked coffee.
He said to me, “Will you help me?”
He asked me if I would help him.
She said to me, “Can I use your Phone?”
She asked me if she could use my Phone.
They told me, “Have you gone to Goa?”
They asked me if I had gone to Goa.
He said to me, “Did you meet your friend?”
He asked me if I had met my friend.
John said to her, “Will you buy the book?”
John asked her whether she would buy the book.
She said, “Are they waiting for me?”
She asked whether they were waiting for her.
(2). जिन प्रश्नवाचक वाक्यों का उत्तर “Yes or No” में नहीं दिया जा सकता उसके indirect speech में “if” or whether ” का का प्रयोग नहीं किया जाता बल्कि question को assertive(positive) form में बदलकर reporting verbके बाद रखा जाता है Examples:
He said to me, “What are you doing?”
He asked me what I was doing.
She said to me, “What is your name?”
She asked me what my name was.
David said to me, “How are you?” David asked me how I was.
They said to me, “where have you gone?”
They asked me where I had gone.
I said to her, “What were you eating?”
I asked her what she had been eating.
He said to her, “How will you help me?”
He asked her how he would help her.
The student said, “How can I buy this book?”
The student asked how he could buy this book.
They said, “How is the weather?”
They asked how the weather was.
Indirect Speech for Modals
Indirect Speech for Modals MUST, MAY, CAN etc
For converting direct speech into indirect speech, Present Modals (e.g. Can, May,Might ) are changed into Past Modals (i.e. Could, Might, Had to).
1. CAN changes into COULD
He said, “I can sing a song”.
He said that he could sing a song.
She said, “I can write a poem”.
She said that she could write a poem.
David said, “I can play a Guitar”. David said that he could play a Guitar.
2. MAY changes into MIGHT
She said, “I may go to Paris”.
She said that she might go to Paris.
He said, “I may call a Doctor.”
He said that he might call a doctor.
They said, “We may buy a car.”
They said that they might buy a car.
3. MUST changes into HAD TO
He said, “I must study this book”. He said that he had to study that book.
They said, “We must finish the work in time.”
They said that they had to finish the work in time.
She said, “I must eat a healthy diet”.
She said that she had to eat a healthy diet”.
Indirect Speech for Modals MIGHT, SHOULD, WOULD, COULD, OUGHT TO
These Modals are not changed and remain same in indirect speech. examples.
He said, “I should start a Job.”
He said that he should start a Job.
She said, “I should not waste my time”.
She said that she should not waste her time.
They said, “We should help the poor.”
They said that we should help the poor.
She said, “I might eat a cake.”
She said that she might eat a cake.
They said, “We might go to a Cinema.”
They said that they might go to a Cinema.
He said, “I might attend the meeting”.
He said that he might attend the meeting.
David said, “I could buy a Camera”.
David said that he could buy a Camera.
He said, “I could play Football.”
He said that he could play Football.
She said, “I would wait for my son”.
She said that she would wait for her son.
He said, “I would decorate the walls.”
He said that he would decorate the walls.
They said, “We would watch a movie.”
They said that they would watch a movie.
8. OUGHT TO
David said, “I ought to avoid unhealthy diets.”
David said that he ought to avoid unhealthy diets.
She said, “I ought not to waste my time.”
She said that she ought not to waste her time.
Question – 15
Share your Results:
Q. 1 The teacher said to me," you are a good student.
Q.2 Annu said to me," I can not go to school today."
Q.3 datar said to me," I saw Mahesh yesterday."
Q. 4 I am afraid, you have caught cold again", said my mother
Q.5 you said to me," I have not lent him "
Q. 6 I replied ,"I was misinformed"
Q.7 he said to me," I shall go to college next week"
Q. 8 I said ,"my love, I live for you"
प्रश्न=9- she said , " shall I ever get married "?
प्रश्न=10 -a man is Mortal. B the teacher said that man.......mortal. ?*
11. He asked me ......... I was doing in the market.
12. David asked me .... I liked coffee.
13. Kaanan said to me, "please help me." Kaanan ....... me to help him.
14. The teacher said that the earth was round.
15. Mukesh said that he ....…... run fast in childhood.
Share your Results:
Specially thanks to Post and Quiz makers ( With Regards )
Jitendra kumar patel, Indrajeet Nishad, Rekharam dhaka churu, Aditya Balesha