Speech – means the way of expressing the statement of any person. English language has two ways to narrate the spoken words of a person.
These two ways are as follows :
- Direct speech
- Indirect speech
These two ways are usually to convey a message (spoken -word) of one person to another person.
For Example –
you are at your collage. Mr David , who is your teacher, says to you ,” I want to meet your parents. ” when you come to home, you will inform your parents in the fallowing two ways.
Direct speech : Mr. David said , “I want to meet your parents. “
Indirect speech : Mr. David said that he wanted to meet my parents.
These two ways are also used to simply narrate spoken word of one person to another .Here is another example suppose, you meet your friend, Mr. John In a market. Mr john says to you, “I brought a book for you. ” when you come ,you may say the words of Mr. John to your brother in the following two ways :
direct speech : Mr John said , “I bought a book for you. “
Indirect speech : Mr. John said that he had bought a book for me .
Direct and indirect speech are also called direct and indirect narrations.
Direct speech – he said, “ I am unwell. “
Indirect speech he said that he was unwell .
D.the girl said, “ I like singing .”
I.the girl said that she liked singing.
1. Direct speech-
means to express the statement of a person as it is (same to same in his / her own words ).
Example- Ram said to me, “I am preparing for the examination.”
Note- यहां पर राम के कथन को उन्हीं के शब्दों में यथावत (same to same) व्यक्त किया गया है ।
2. Indirect speech
means to express the statement of a person in a different way (different from his / her own words)
Example- Ram said to me that he was preparing for the examination.
Note- यहां पर राम के कथन को एक अलग ही तरीके से व्यक्त किया गया है (उनके शब्दों में थोड़ा सा परिवर्तन कर दिया गया है)
Note- किसी व्यक्ति के कथन को चाहे direct speech में व्यक्त किया जाए या Indirect speech में व्यक्त किया जाए, दोनों ही स्थितियों में कथन का अर्थ समान रहता है । कथन के अर्थ में कोई परिवर्तन नहीं होता है।
Ram said to Sita,,” I am going to school now”.
Isme- Ram said to Sita – Reporting verb h.
- Ram Speaker h.
- Sita listener.
- I am going to school – reported speech h.
- Ram told sita that he was going to school than.
Jesa ki btaya gya h ki isme kus 5 change hue h
1. Reporting verb
4. HV/ m.v
1. Reporting verb
A. Yadi sentence simple ho.to .
- Said – said
- Said to – told.
- Say – say
- Say to – tell
- Says – says
- Says to – tells
- And conjunction- that
B. Yadi sentence interrogative me ho.
- Say/ says to – ask
- Said / said to -asked
Conjunction- if Or wh Word ho to wh word hi aayega.
C. Imperative :-
Sentence k bhav k anusar.
Requested, ordered, commanded aata h.
Conjunction- to or negative ho to – not to
Sentence k bhav k anusar…blessed , wished
Sentence k bhav k anusar.
Exclaimed with joy / sorrow.
3. Pronoun me change.
1. 1st Person ( I, me, my ,myself ) Speaker k according change hote h. We, our, us ko hum they their them me change krte h…
2. 2nd person you, your, you Listener k according change hote h.
3. Third person:- He his him she her her they their them it ,its, it inko nahi bdlte h.
4. HV./ MV. Me change
- v1. – v2
- v2. – had+ v3
- Is/ am/ are. – was/ were
- Has/have. – had
- Do/ does. – did / main verb ki second form
- Did – had+ v3
- Had – had
- Will – would
- Shall – should
- Can – could
- May. – might
- Must – had to
Baki sbhi modal same rhte h.
Note: universal truth me kbhi verb change nhi hoti
Ram says to me,” Earth moves around the sun”.
Ram tells that Earth moves around the sun.
- Today. – that day
- Tonight – that night
- Tomorrow – the next day
- The next day – the following day
- Yesterday/ last day – the previous day
- Now – than
- This – that
- These – those
- Here – there.
- After- before
- Ago- before.
Question – 12
Ram said to me,” I have completed my work”.
Ram told me that he had completed his work.
Yadi reported speech me Let’s diya h to usko hatakr they should lgaye.
Ram said to me,” let’s go now”.
Ram suggested that they should go than.
Indirect Speech for Imperative Sentences
A sentence that expresses a command, a request, an advice or a suggestion is called an imperative sentence.
Open the door. (command)
Please help me. (request)
Quit smoking. (advice)
⭕ Imperative sentence का Indirect speech बनाने पर said/told के स्थान पर ordered, requested, advised, suggested शब्दों का प्रयोग किया जाता है ।
1⃣She said to me, “Please help me.”
She requested me to help her.
2⃣Teacher said to him, “Do not waste your time”
Teacher advised him not to waste his time.
3⃣Doctor said to him, “Avoid unhealthy food”
Doctor advised him to avoid unhealthy food.
4⃣The Boss said to the employee, “Get out of the room”
The Boss ordered the employee to get out of the room.
5⃣He said to his servant, “Clean the room”.
He ordered his servant to clean the room.
Question – 28
Specially thanks to Post and Quiz makers ( With Regards )
Jitendra kumar patel, Indrajeet Nishad, Rekharam dhaka churu, Aditya Balesha