Punctuation Definition – Punctuation is the name for marks used in writing. They help us to understand the sentences and passages.
When we speak, we can pause or emphasize certain words and phrases to help people understand what we are saying.
In our writing, we use punctuation to show pauses and emphasis. Punctuation marks help the reader understand what we mean.
A punctuation mark is a mark, or sign, used in writing to divide texts into phrases and sentences and make the meaning clear.
Common punctuation marks –
- . is a full stop
- , is a comma
- ? is a question mark
- ! is an exclamation mark
- ‘ is an apostrophe
- ” is a quotation mark/inverted comma
- : is a colon
- ; is a semicolon
- … is an ellipsis
- – is a hyphen
- – is a n-dash
- — is an m-dash
1. End Punctuation
End Punctuation is used in the end of a sentence. It is the most common punctuation in the English language. We must use end punctuation at the end of every sentence to avoid confusion.
The three most common ways to end a sentence are as following –
1. Full stop ( . )
- The elephant is big.
- We have done our work.
- Sit down.
- Make tea for me.
2. Question mark( ?)
- What is your name ?
- where is Ramu ?
- Is that your pen?
- When do you go to school ?
3. Exclamation mark ( ! )
- The huge elephant sat on the man!
- This is your house!
End punctuation tells the reader where each sentence ends. It also helps the reader understand the writer’s emotions about the subject. For example, an exclamation mark ( ! ) tells the reader that I am excited or yelling.
Incorrect uses of end punctuation
Using the wrong end punctuation can cause confusion for the reader.
Consider these three sentences:
- Richard wants to marry Rose.
- Richard wants to marry Rose!
- Richard wants to marry Rose?
The words of each sentence are the same, but the end punctuation greatly changes the meaning:
1. Richard wants to marry Rose.
By using a Full stop , the writer is simply stating a fact. The writer does not show any feelings about the situation.
2. Richard wants to marry Rose!
With an exclamation mark, the writer shows emotion about the situation. The writer is probably excited.
3. Richard wants to marry Rose?
By using a question mark, the writer has turned the sentence into a question. The writer seems surprised and is asking for clarification.
Apostrophe ( ‘ )
Apostrophe sign is largely used in English language. It is used in the following ways
1. to show possession
- Ram’s house
- Mohan’s Book
- Children’s books
2. contracted form of helping verbs + not
3. contracted forms of pronouns and helping verbs
Comma (अल्प विराम)
Comma is a very important type of punctuation. Comma tells the reader where to pause. Comma also separates phrases, ideas, and items in a list. Commas help avoid confusion.
Uses of Comma
A) Using commas in lists:
Here is a list of some foods
Anil likes to eat chocolate, samosa, pasta, pizza and burger.
Here , we see that Anil actually likes five foods:
B) Commas for phrasing
Here is a funny example:
- It is time to eat David !
- It is time to eat, David !
1. In the first sentence, it sounds like we are going to eat David for lunch!
2. The comma in the second sentence shows the writer that we are actually informing David that it is time to eat.
C) comma is used in direct speech also
- Raina said, “I want to learn English .”
- He said to his friend, ” consult a doctor .”
We can know the importance of a “COMMA” by the following Hindi sentence .
1. रोको, मत जाने दो ।
2. रोको मत, जाने दो ।
All the words in the above sentences are same. But the use of COMMA in different places have changed the meanings.
Both the sentences have different meanings only because of the COMMA.
Punctuation mark ( Capital Letters )
punctuation marks के रूप में capital letters का प्रयोग निम्न प्रकार से किया जाता है
1.किसी वाक्य के प्रथम शब्द का प्रथम अक्षर हमेशा capital letter होता है
the first letter of a sentence is always capital.
- He is going.
- They have paid the bill.
- Who is shouting?
- The birds are flying in the sky.
2. In the first letter of proper nouns
व्यक्तिवाचक संज्ञा शब्द के प्रथम अक्षर में
- He is my friend Ram.
- I saw Mohan in the market.
- Sohan, Mohan, Ravi, Manohar,Kunal and Mukesh or my friends.
- I have been to Switzerland.
- We read Milton in M A final .
3. In the short forms of the names
नाम के संक्षिप्त रूपों में
- Dr. B. R. Ambedkar
- R. K. Narayanan
- J. Krishnamurti
- V. S. Naipaul
4. In the names of degrees or courses
5. In the first letter of direct speech
- He said, “He is going.”
- The teacher said, “The Earth is round.”
6. I ( मैं ) is always used in capital letter
Specially thanks to Post and Quiz makers ( With Regards )